DOCTRINE OF STARE DECISIS 

The doctrine of stare decisis can also be called the doctrine of the precedent. The stare decisis is a Latin word which simply means to stand by the things decided. The doctrine of stare decisis is commonly used in common law systems.  All states in United State rely on stare decisis except the Louisiana which practices civil law system.  Stare decisis principles are not applied uniformly. The doctrine of stare decisis is effective where jurisdiction has the highest court. The doctrine of stare decisis operates horizontally as well as vertically. The horizontal stare decisis is a type of stare decisis where the court adheres to its own precedent while the vertical stare decisis is useful where the court wants to engage in precedent from the high court.   The doctrine of stare decisis discourages the litigation of the established precedents. The stare decisis is cited by the court when the issue at hand has been before brought to the court and the rule issued.  Supreme Court states that Stare decisis promotes the predictable and the development of the principles and contributes to the perceived integrity of judicial process. The Supreme Court does not need to be continuously re-evaluating the past rules. The predictability which is afforded by the doctrine of stare decisis is known to help in clarifying the constitutional rights of the public. However, this benefit is realized only when the decisions are published.  It is not possible to prove the doctrine of stare decisis in cases which involve the secret opinions. The stare decisis does not permits the wrong decision always.  Sometimes the court does not use the doctrine of stare decisis when the decision is unworkable. The decision that seems to overrule the precedent is worked on with a lot of caution.

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