Modern states in Asia and Africa, if they wish to cultivate “good governance”, avoid oligarchic Austinian positivism and maintain stability, not only have to respect human rights today, but must also account for their people’s customs and convictions’. Discuss with specific reference to Southeast Asian and African examples and indicate briefly to what extent such states may be aware of what you are studying as the layer model of law or the symbolism of law as a kite. SOAS University of London