To what extent has the HRA 1998 impacted on the reversal of legal burden to an accused in criminal cases? Table of Content Introduction 2-4 R v Lambert case 5-6 Impact of Human Rights Act 1998 7 6 principles by Ian Dennis · Judicial deference 7-9 · Classification of offences 9-10 · Construction of criminal liability: elements of offences and defences 11-12 · Significance of maximum penalties 13 · Ease of proof and peculiar knowledge 14-15 · Presumption of innocence 15-16 Conclusion 17 Bibliography 18-19 Tables of statutes and cases 20-21