Centralized Command and Control Systems – Al-Qaeda

Prior to 9/11, Osama Bin Laden (OBL) established Al-Qaeda (AQ) as a terrorist organization with a centralized command and control system. By the late 2000s, AQ was no longer a singular entity, with new ‘branches‘ existing in Northern Africa (AQIM), Yemen (AQAP), Iraq (AQI), and elsewhere. Each branch cited allegiance to the core beliefs of AQ and OBL; however, intelligence supports that little, if any, centralized command and control exists between geographically distant groups.

Israel and the League of Arab States

What are the circumstances and events surrounding the emergence of the state of Israel? Explain.
From the perspective of historically stated opinions, why is the existence of Israel problematic for certain Muslim factions? Explain.
What are the current points of disagreement and the stated goals related to the future of Israel of Arab nations (cite by nation and by international cooperative (e.g. League of Arab States; Council of Arab Economic Unity, etc.)? Explain.
What are the similarities and differences between the stated philosophies of Hamas and Hezbollah? Explain.


Following the retreat of Soviet soldiers from Afghanistan in the late 1980s, a period of intertribal conflict ended with the ascension of the Taliban to national leadership. What are the policies of the Taliban toward its citizens, its neighboring nations, and Western democracies?
How has Al-Qaeda evolved, focusing on the evolution of Osama Bin Laden from Mujahidin leader to international terrorist leader? Explain.
What were his stated grievances, motivations, and stated goals?
What are the differences between a terrorist organization and a terrorist movement? Explain in detail.


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